So far, the institutionalization of restorative justice in various countries has taken many paths.1 That process resists any easy generalization. At the same time, there is a frequently expressed concern that the institutionalization of restorative justice leads to a compromise of restorative justice values and a return to a more retributive focus. There are also concerns about the subjugation of restorative justice objectives and principles to managerial objectives and process within the criminal justice system.
Through its varying expressions, restorative justice can intersect to varying degrees with the criminal justice process and also function totally independently from that process. That intersection can occur at various stages of the criminal justice process and, as a result, adopt many different forms.